Drinking Water Treatment

Solutions for Small Communities

Water is our planet’s most valuable natural resource. Yet, as populations continue to grow, many municipalities are faced with growing concerns about the availability of usable water to meet the demand. Even in areas where the water is plentiful, it must often be purified before it is acceptable for drinking. As the cost of water increases and as drinking water standards grow increasingly more complex, Pakwater Care Services is the partner to choose for supplying and managing your drinking water treatment programs. Pakwater Care Services provides safe, reliable and cost-effective drinking water treatment programs geared for the needs of small communities. We know that it is sometimes difficult for small communities to comply with current and future regulations. That’s why we have developed products and services that take the guesswork out of solving your contaminated drinking water problems. Pakwater Care Services provides you with peace of mind that your drinking water treatment challenges will be handled professionally, reliably, safely and – in complete environmental compliance.

We offer the broadest range of products and services to meet the needs of municipalities. We have the technology and equipment to solve all your drinking water issues and the turnkey services that help you manage your process and manpower. With Siemens, you get the benefit of working with a leader in the environmental and water treatment industry. Our full line of products and support services include:

  • System design and technology selection
  • Equipment supply and installation
  • Filter media – supply, installation, removal
  • Sanitization
  • Membrane Care Program – supply, installation, cleaning and removal of RO membranes (Reverse Osmosis)
  • Preventive maintenance and service contracts
  • Analytical testing
  • Monitoring
  • Grant Assistance
  • Technical assistance with permit documentation

The Right Treatment Technologies for your Community

The right treatment technology for each community is dependent on a number of factors, including raw water source, flow rate and effluent requirements. In order to determine what type of water treatment technology accurately suits your situation, it is important that you first analyze the quality of your incoming water supply. This ensures the water treatment equipment you purchase will meet your specific water quality needs. The various technologies shown below treat specific types of contaminants. No single technology solves all contaminant issues; it may be necessary to combine technologies into an integrated water treatment system.

Clarification Process

Clarification Recommended for Removal of:

Turbidity

Clarification involves a combination of equipment and chemicals which increase the size of solids suspended in the source water to the point where they can settle. Water that is prepared for potable use is taken from surface sources that can contain relatively high amounts of suspended solids and dissolved minerals. Large suspended solids will often settle on their own over a period of time (settling time) and fall to the bottom of the clarifier vessel. Smaller solids, dissolved solid sand other contaminants require chemical treatment in combination with a mixing step to cause collision of these smaller solids causing them to increase in size to the point they will settle on their own. Solids are removed in the clarification process so that the final filters do not clog frequently.

Ion Exchange Resins

Recommended for Removal of:

Nitrates

Perchlorates

Radionuclides

Arsenic

Iron,

Manganese

Ion exchange resin is a cost effective and efficient treatment technology for a wide variety of contaminants and water chemistries. Ion exchange systems rely on the process of exchanging harmful positive and negative ions in solution for harmless ions. As the contaminant-laden waters are passed through the resin bed, the exchange process continues until the resin is “exhausted” and can no longer exchange “good for bad”ions. Pakwater Care Services gives you the flexibility of on-or off-site regeneration of exhausted resins and can arrange for proper disposal and/or thermal destruction to prevent recontamination.

Media Filtration

Recommended for Removal of:

Iron

Manganese

Turbidity


Media Filtration is the process of removing suspended matter from water by obstructing its passage with a granular media. As water, laden with solids passes through the media, the particles are captured within the filter material. An under drain beneath the filter bed collects filtered liquid. In a typical filtration bed, the filter media consists of a bed of sand, or a combination of sand and anthracite coal. In a down flow filter arrangement, multi-layer, mixed-grade medias allow solids to pass deeper into the bed before collection, resulting in higher filtration rates and longer run lengths before backwashing is necessary. Filtration does not remove dissolved solids.

Activated Carbon Adsorption

Recommended for Removal of:

TOC

VOC

Taste

Odor


Activated Carbon is an adsorption media process that involves passing contaminated water through a bed of activated carbon. Adsorption is a natural process by which molecules of a dissolved compound collect on and adhere to the surface of an adsorbent solid. Granular activated carbon is a particularly good adsorbent medium due to its high surface area to volume ratio and its affinity for many organic contaminants. This high surface area permits the accumulation of a large number of contaminant molecules. Granular activated carbon is considered the Best Available Technology (BAT) by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) for removing many organic contaminants that exceed maximum.

Reverse Osmosis (R O)

Recommended for Removal of:

TDS

Nitrates

Giarda

Cryptosporidium

High Salts

Reverse Osmosis (RO) is the process by which water, under pressure, is passed through semi-permeable membranes used to remove various soluble in organics present in the water. The membrane will pass the water, but rejects the dissolved materials to waste. The purified water that passes through the membrane is the permeate or product water. Nano filtration is a variation of RO with the ability to retain larger ions and pass smaller ions resulting in a permeate that is less corrosive to piping. Waters may have to be pretreated to remove constituents which may attack the membrane or impair its performance. pretreatment may include removing oxidizing iron and manganese salts, filtering out precipitates, adjusting the pH or removing oil and grease which may form films on the membranes.

Membrane Filtration

Recommended for Removal of:

Giarda

Cryptosporidium

Membrane Filtration uses microporous filters to remove suspended solids, colloidal particles, cysts and bacteria while providing the same high-quality finished water regardless of incoming water turbidity. Contaminants smaller than the pore size of the membrane are physically retained and will not pass through the membrane. During normal operation, the membranes are backwashed to sustain optimal performance. In addition to the periodic backwashing, preventative maintenance techniques, such as a short maintenance wash, maximize the time between full chemical cleanings.

Chemical Adjustment

Recommended Removal for:

the Destruction inactivation of disease producing organisms


Chemicals are typically added to water for the purpose of disinfection, pH adjustment, coagulation, removal of suspended solids and prevention of scaling. In most cases, chemicals are added as a pretreatment step to enhance and increase the performance of the treatment process. Disinfection in drinking water applications is a vital element to public health. The goal of disinfection is the destruction or inactivation of disease producing organisms, to eliminate the spread of waterborne diseases. Chlorine disinfection is the most commonly used method. Chlorine offers the advantages of residual protection, ease of application, and control and monitoring. Whether metered as agas in solution, or fed as a liquid solution, it is a reliable, cost effective disinfection solution.

Ultra Violet Disinfection

Recommended Removal for:

inactivation of waterborne pathogens. (Bacteria and Viruses)

Ultraviolet disinfection offers many advantages over other forms of water treatment for microbiological contaminants. Most importantly, it does not introduce any chemicals to the water, it produces no by-products, and it does not alter the taste, pH, or other properties of the water. When used with various forms of filtration, UV light is capable of inactivating microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, molds, algae, yeast, and protozoa like cryptosporidium and giardia. Used alone UV light generally has no impact on chlorine, VOCs, heavy metals, and other chemical contaminants.

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